L’estudiant com a client: un canvi de paradigma en l’educació superior

Javier Paricio Royo

Resum

Cada vegada amb major freqüència, es parla de l’estudiant universitari en termes de client o consumidor. Més enllà de la demanda d’una atenció adequada, la idea d’estudiant-client ens col·loca no solament davant una nova concepció de l’estudiant, sinó també davant un nou paradigma de l’educació superior. Són diversos els trets que caracteritzen aquest paradigma: un sistema universitari concebut com a mercat competitiu; la reputació i la imatge pública convertides en una prioritat institucional de les universitats, en la mesura que estan associades a la capacitat d’atracció de més i millors estudiants i a mecanismes de satisfacció d’aquests; titulacions contemplades com a inversions econòmiques personals, habitualment acompanyades amb taxes altes; currículums dissenyats com una formació professional d’alt nivell; sistemes de qualitat basats en el principi
de qualitat com a satisfacció del client, i tota una manera nova de concebre les relacions educatives entre estudiants i professorat. Tot aquest paradigma és ja una realitat en alguns països i, en molts altres, entre els quals Espanya, va obrint-se
pas progressivament. El present estudi fa una anàlisi d’aquest paradigma per mitjà d’una extensa revisió bibliogràfica de la recerca sobre els diferents factors que el caracteritzen i sobre el seu impacte en la qualitat dels processos d’aprenentatge i
la funció social de les universitats.

Referències

Alves, H., y Raposo, M. (2007). Conceptual Model of Student Satisfaction in Higher Education. Total Quality

Management & Business Excellence, 18(5), 571-588.

Astin, A. W. (1970). How colleges are rated. Change, 2(1), 11-86.

Astin, A. W. (1977). Four Critical Years. Effects of College on Beliefs, Attitudes, and Knowledge. San Fancisco, California:

Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc.

Ballard, J. D. (2004). Academic standards and grade inflation: easily forgotten structural aspects of the equation.

Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 84(4), 23.

Bastedo, M. N., y Bowman, N. A. (2010). U.S. News &World Report College Rankings: Modeling Institutional Effects

on Organizational Reputation. American Journal of Education, 116(2), 163-183.

Bay, D., y Daniel, H. (2001). The Student Is Not the Customer—An Alternative Perspective. Journal of Marketing for

Higher Education, 11(1), 1-19.

Biggs, J. B., y Tang, C. (1999). Teaching for Quality Learning at University: What the Student Does (2.ª ed.). Philadelphia,

Pa.: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.

Binsardi, A., y Ekwulugo, F. (2003). International marketing of British education: research on the students’ perception

and the UK market penetration. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 21(5), 318-327.

Boza, A., y Toscano, M. (2012). Motivos, actitudes y estrategias de aprendizaje: aprendizaje motivado en alumnos

universitarios. Profesorado. Revista de currículum y formación del profesorado, 16, 125-142.

Brown, R. M., y Mazzarol, T. W. (2009). The importance of institutional image to student satisfaction and loyalty

within higher education. Higher Education, 58, 81-95.

Carlson, P. M., y Fleisher, M. S. (2002). Shifting realities in higher education: today’s business model threatens our

academic excellence. International Journal of Public Administration, 25(9/10), 1097-1111.

Carretero Díaz, M. A. (2004). La calidad: a la búsqueda de la confianza perdida. Revista Complutense de Educación,

(2), 521-560.

Centra, J. A. (2003). Will Teachers Receive Higher Student Evaluations by Giving Higher Grades and Less course

Work. Research in Higher Education, 44(5), 495-518.

Chan, R. Y. (2016). Understanding the purpose of higher education: Examining the social and economic benefits

for completing a college degree. Journal of Education Policy, Planning and Administration, 6(5), 1-40.

Clarke, M. (2002). Some guidelines for academic quality rankings. Higher Education in Europe, 27(4), 443-459.

Clayson, D. E., y Haley, D. A. (1990). Student Evaluations in Marketing: What is Actually being Measured? Journal

of Marketing Education, 12(3), 9-17.

Clayson, D. E., y Haley, D. A. (2005). Marketing models in education: students as customers, products, or partners.

Marketing Education Review, 15(1), 1-10.

Craig, D. D., y Lombardi, J. V. (2012). Measuring Research Performance. National and International Perspectives.

En J. V. Lombardi, E. D. Phillips, C. W. Abbey, y D. D. Craig (eds.), The Top American Research Universities.

Annual Report (p. 3-14). Tempe / Amherst: Center for Measuring University Performance at Arizona State

University / University of Massachusetts.

Dale, S., y Krueger, A. (2002). Estimating the payoff to attending a more selective college: An application of selection

on observables and unobservables. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(4), 1491-1527.

Delucchi, M., y Korgen, K. (2002). «We’re the Customer-We Pay the Tuition»: Student Consumerism among

Undergraduate Sociology Majors. Teaching Sociology, 30(1), 100-107.

Diamond, N., y Graham, H. D. (2000). How Should We Rate Research Universities? Change: The Magazine of Higher

Learning, 32(4), 20-33.

Dill, D. D. (2003). Allowing the Market to Rule: The Case of the United States. Higher Education Quarterly, 57, 136-157.

Doherty, G. D. (1995). Quality assurance in higher education: a coat of many colours. Engineering Science & Education

Journal, 4(6), 249-252.

Douglas, J., Douglas, A., y Barnes, B. (2006). Measuring student satisfaction at a UK university. Quality Assurance

in Education, 14(3), 251-267.

Duque, L. C., y Weeks, J. R. (2010). Towards a model and methodology for assessing student learning outcomes and

satisfaction. Quality Assurance in Education, 18(2), 84-105.

Eagle, L., y Brennan, R. (2007). Are students customers? TQM and marketing perspectives. Quality Assurance in

Education, 15(1), 44-60.

Elliott, K. M., y Shin, D. (2002). Student Satisfaction: An alternative approach to assessing this important concept.

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 24(2), 197-209.

Eskildsen, J. K., Martensen, A., Grønholdt, L., y Kristensen, K. (1999). Benchmarking student satisfaction in higher

education based on the ECSI methodology. Documento presentado en TQM for Higher Education Institutions

Conference: Higher Education Institutions and the Issue of Total Quality, 30-31 August, Verona.

Fombrun, C. J. (1996). Reputation. Realizing Value from Corporate Image. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business

School Press.

Fombrun, C. J., y Riel, C. B. M. van (2003). Fame and Fortune: How Successful Companies Build Winning Reputations.

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Time Prentice-Hall Books.

Hall, D. (1996). How Useful Is the Concept of Total Quality Management to the University of the 90s? Journal of

Further & Higher Education, 20(2), 20-30.

Hall, W. A. (2013). Consumerism and consumer complexity: Implications for university teaching and teaching

evaluation. Nurse Education Today, 33, 720-723.

Harvey, L., y Knight, P. T. (1996). Transforming Higher Education.

Buckingham / Bristol: The Society for Research into

Higher Education / Open University Press.

Helgesen, Ø., y Nesset, E. (2007). Images, Satisfaction and Antecedents: Drivers of Student Loyalty? A Case Study

of a Norwegian University College. Corporate Reputation Review, 10(1), 30-59.

Hill, Y., Lomas, L., y MacGregor, J. (2003). Students perceptions of quality in higher education. Quality Assurance

in Education, 11(1), 15-20.

Houston, D. (2007). TQM and Higher Education: A Critical Systems Perspective on Fitness for Purpose. Quality in

Higher Education, 13(1), 3-17.

Houston, D. (2008). Rethinking quality and improvement in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 16(1), 61-79.

Jackson, M. J., Helms, M. M., y Ahmadi, M. (2011). Quality as a gap analysis of college students’ expectations.

Quality Assurance in Education, 19(4), 392-412.

James, R., y Coates, H. (2006). The context. Paper presented at the Student engagement. Measuring and enhancing

engagement with learning. Symposium held on Monday and Tuesday 27 and 28 March 2006 at the Frederic

Wallis House Conference Centre Lower Hutt, Nueva Zelanda.

Jennings, J. M., y Angelo, T. (2006). Measuring student engagement in learning: promoting shared responsibility for quality

outcomes. A call for leadership. Documento presentado en la Student engagement. Measuring and enhancing

engagement with learning. Symposium held on Monday and Tuesday 27 and 28 March 2006 at the Frederic

Wallis House Conference Centre Lower Hutt, Nueva Zelanda.

Jones, G. (2006). «I wish to register a complaint»: the growing complaints culture in higher education. Perspectives:

Policy and Practice in Higher Education, 10(3), 69-73.

Kandiko, C. B., y Mawer, M. (2013). Student expectations and perceptions of higher education. York: Quality Assurance

Agency (QAA) / King’s College London.

Kanji, G. K., y Tambi, M. A. (1999). Total quality management in UK higher education institutions. Total Quality

Management, 10(1), 129-153.

Kingston, P. W., y Smart, J. C. (1990). The Economic Payoff of Prestigious Colleges. En P. W. Kingston y L. S. Lewis

(eds.), The High Status Track: Studies of Elite Schools and Stratification (p. 147-174). Nueva York: State University

of New York Press.

Kotler, P., y Fox, K. (1995). Strategic Marketing for Educational Institutions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Kotzé, T. G., y du Plessis, P. J. (2003). Students as «co-producers» of education: a proposed model of student

socialization and participation at tertiary institutions. Quality Assurance in Education, 11(4), 186-201.

Kuh, G. D., y Pascarella, E. T. (2004). What Does Institutional Selectivity Tell Us About Educational Quality. Change,

(5), 52-58.

Litten, L. (1986). Perspectives on pricing. En D. Hossler (ed.), New Directions for Higher Education: No. 53. Managing

College Enrollments (p. 15-33). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

López Rupérez, F. (2003). La gestión de Calidad en Educación. Madrid: La Muralla.

Lowe, W. J. (2014, 9/4). Education is worth the investment. The Huffington Post. Recuperado el 23 de junio de 2017

de http://www.huffingtonpost.com/william-j-lowe/education-is-worth-the-in_b_5767518.html

Lumina Foundation and Gallup. (2014). What America needs to know about higher education redesign. Washington,

DC: Lumina Foundation.

Mark, E. (2013). Student satisfaction and the customer focus in higher education. Journal of Higher Education Policy

and Management, 35(1), 2-10.

Marsh, H., y Roche, L. (1997). Making students’ evaluations of teaching effectiveness effective: The critical issues

of validity, bias, and utility. American Psychologist, 52(11), 1187-1197.

Marsh, H. W. (2001). Distinguishing Between Good (Useful) and Bad Workloads on Students’ Evaluations of Teaching.

American Educational Research Journal, 38(1), 38-103.

Marsh, H. W., y Roche, L. A. (2000). Effects of grading leniency and low workload on students’ evaluations of

teaching: Popular myth, bias, validity, or innocent bystanders? Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1), 202-228.

Mayor, C., Seoane, C., Linares, J., Carrillo, J., García Cañete, J., Andradas, C., et ál. (2016). Barómetro Universidad-

Sociedad 2016. Madrid: Consejo Social de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

McDonough, P. M., Antonio, A. L., y Horvat, E. M. (1997). College Choice as Capital Conversion and Investment: A

New Model. Texas: Texas A&M University, Department of Educational Administration.

McDonough, P. M., Antonio, A. L., Walpole, M., y Pérez, L. X. (1998). College Rankings: Democratized College

Knowledge for Whom? Research in Higher Education, 39(5), 513-537.

Mehrtens, I. (2016). Students, customers, partners? Recuperado el 27 de octubre de 2016 de https://www.linkedin.

com/pulse/students-customers-partners-ian-mehrtens

Monks, J., y Ehrenberg, R. G. (1999). The Impact of U.S. News & World Report College Rankings on Admissions Outcomes

and Pricing Policies at Selective Private Institutions (NBER Working Paper Series No. 7227). Cambridge, MA: National

Bureau of Economic Research.

Montgomery, L., y Canaan, J. (2004). Conceptualizing Higher Education Students as Social Actors in A Globalizing

World: A Special Issue. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 17(6), 739-748.

Munteanu, C., Ceobanu, C., Bobalca, C., y Anton, O. (2010). An analysis of customer satisfaction in a higher

education context. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 23, 124-140.

New York Times Editors (2010, 3 de enero). Are they students? Or «customers»? The student as cash cow. The New

York Times. Recuperado el 23 de junio de 2017 de http://roomfordebate.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/01/03/arethey-

students-or-customers/#mark

Noel-Levitz. (s.f.). Student Satisfaction Inventory™ (SSI). Recuperado el 30 de septiembre de 2014 de https://www.

noellevitz.com/student-retention-solutions/satisfaction-priorities-assessments/student-satisfaction-inventory

OIA (Office of the Independent Adjudicator for Higher Education) (2015). Annual Report 2015. Berkshire: Office of

the Independent Adjudicator for Higher Education.

Petruzzellis, L., D’Uggento, A. M., y Romanazzi, S. (2006). Student satisfaction and quality of service in Italian

universities. Managing Service Quality, 16(4), 349-364.

Pryor, J. H., Eagan, K., Blake, L. P., Hurtado, S., Berdan, J., y Case, M. H. (2012). The American Freshman: National

Norms Fall 2012. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) at University of California.

Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education (2.ª ed.). Londres / Nueva York: Routledge/Falmer.

Ramsden, P. (2008). The Future of Higher Education: Teaching and the Student Experience. Londres: Higher Education

Academy.

Regev, T. (2007). Imperfect Information, Self-Selection and the Market for Higher Education. San Francisco: Federal Reserve

Bank of San Francisco.

Rolfe, H. (2002). Students’ demands and expectations in an age of reduced financial support: the perspectives of

lecturers in four English universities. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 24(2), 171-182.

Sevier, R. A. (1996). Those important things: what every college president needs to know about marketing and

student recruiting. College & University, 71(4), 9-16.

Sirvanci, M. (1996). Are Students the True Customers of Higher Education? Quality Progress, 29(10), 99-102.

Stuhmcke, A. (2001). Grievance handling in Australian universities: the case of the university ombudsman and the

dean of students. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 23(2), 181-189.

Suriá, R., Villegas, E., Rosser, A. y Rebollo, J. (2012). Motivación y expectativas de los estudiantes universitarios

sobre su carrera universitaria. Ponencia presentada en las X Jornadas de Redes de Investigación en Docencia

Universitaria: La participación y el compromiso de la comunidad universitaria, Alicante.

Trout, P. A. (1997). Disengaged Students and the Decline of Academic Standards. Academic Questions, 10, 46-56.

Volkwein, J. F., y Sweitzer, K. V. (2006). Institutional Prestige and Reputation among Research Universities and

Liberal Arts Colleges. Research in Higher Education, 47(2), 129-148.

Wiers-Jenssen, J., Stensaker, B., y Grøgaard, J. B. (2002). Student Satisfaction: Towards an empirical deconstruction

of the concept. Quality in Higher Education, 8(2), 183-195.

Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., y Berry, L. L. (1990). Delivering Quality Service. Balancing Customer Perceptions and

Expectations. Nueva York: The Free Press.

Enllaços refback

  • No hi ha cap enllaç refback.